Using CarSim and TruckSim
Here is a limited bibliography of technical papers showing how CarSim and TruckSim are used.
Ross Brown (Motile Robotics Inc.), Marcus Mazza (U.S. Army), Dy Le (U.S. Army Research Lab), Muthuvel Murugan (U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground). “Comparison of Generalized Predictive Control Algorithms Using a Full Vehicle Multi-Body Dynamics Model." SAE Paper 2012-01-1932. October 2012. Show summary
This paper discusses research conducted by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) - Vehicle Technology Directorate (VTD) on advanced suspension control. ARL-VTD has conducted research on advanced suspension systems that will reduce the chassis vibration of ground vehicles while maintaining tire contact with the road surface. The purpose of this research is to reduce vibration-induced fatigue to the Warfighter as well as to improve the target aiming precision in-theater.
The objective of this paper was to explore the performance effectiveness of various formulations of the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) algorithm in a simulation environment. Each version of the control algorithm was applied to an identical vehicle simulation model subjected to the same ground disturbance input and compared to a baseline passive suspension. The control algorithms included three different models applied to a two-axle tactical vehicle with independent front and rear suspensions, modeled in the TruckSim vehicle dynamics simulation environment. The control algorithms were compared based on their effectiveness in controlling peak acceleration and overall average acceleration over a range of vehicle speeds. The algorithms demonstrated significant reductions in the chassis acceleration and pitch of the full-vehicle model.
Benjamin Duprey, Michael Sayers, and Thomas Gillespie (Mechanical Simulation Corporation). "Using TruckSim to Test Performance Based Standards (PBS)." SAE Paper 2012-01-1919. October 2012. Show summary
The increasing use and implementation of computer simulation in the vehicle engineering process has allowed for complex vehicles to be designed and tested in a virtual environment prior to a full-size vehicle being built. This approach is of particular importance in the commercial truck markets of Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa where large truck-trailer combinations, often referred to as “road trains”, are becoming more common. Such trucks can carry more freight per vehicle; however their overall length and mass means additional safety standards must be in place to ensure a safely operating vehicle. To that end the National Transport Commission (NTC) Australia has been developing vehicle specifications called Performance Based Standards, or PBS. Performance Based Standards include specifications for longitudinal performance such as Startability, Gradeability, Acceleration Capability, and Tracking ability on a straight path. Directional performance tests are Low Speed Swept Path, Frontal Swing and Tail Swing, Steer Tire Friction Demand, Static Rollover Threshold, Rearward Amplification, High-Speed Offtracking, and Yaw Damping Coefficient.The PBS specification allows both in-vehicle testing and numerical analysis. This paper describes how the PBS procedures are handled in the commercially available TruckSim vehicle simulation tool. It also describes how a set of large vehicle models made with a five-axle towing unit and various numbers of trailers with four axles are used to represent a majority of the “road train” vehicles.
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, and Mehdi Ahmadian (Virginia Tech). “Robust Optimal Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion with Driver-in-the-Loop." SAE Paper 2012-01-1903. October 2012. Show summary
Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability could be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), worked together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provided the steering wheel control, the VSC command was obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model was put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion.
This study focused on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input. A robust control strategy based on Integral Sliding Mode control was proposed to make the optimal controller robust to disturbances in the steering angles. The resulting robust optimal controller was evaluated in a lane change maneuver, and the optimal set of steering angle and corrective yaw moment as a part of a vehicle stability control system was calculated. Simulation results demonstrated that the optimal control algorithm could robustly reduce lateral velocity, yaw rate, and roll angle, all of which contribute to enhancing vehicle stability when the uncertainty in the driver's steering action is bounded.
A long standing problem with heavy vehicle stability has been rollover. With the higher center of gravity, heavier loads, and narrower tracks (as compared to passenger vehicles), they have a lower rollover stability threshold. In this paper, a rollover stability control algorithm based on a two degrees of freedom (DOF) and a three DOF vehicle model for a two-axle truck was developed. The rollover stability control was evaluated using fishhook and step steering maneuvers using TruckSim. The simulation results show that the LMI robust controller could effectively improve the vehicle rollover stability.
Active safety systems have become an essential part of today's vehicles including SUVs and LTVs. Although they have advanced in many aspects, there are still many areas that they can be improved. This paper first presents the implementation strategy for a dynamic tire slip-angle estimation methodology using a combination of a tire based sensor and an observer system. Next, an adaptive vehicle stability controller is developed based on the estimated tire slip-angle information. The resulting control laws integrate Active Front Steering and Direct Yaw Control schemes. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using a two-axle truck model under an evasive double lane change maneuver on high and low friction surfaces in CarSim. The results indicate that the system can successfully stabilize the vehicle as well as adapting to the changes in surface conditions.
G.N. Marichal, M. Tomas-Rodgriguez, P. Campoy, S. Castillo, A. Hernandez, Vibraciones a partir de la simulacion de un helicoptero para el estudio de sus efectos sobre el sistema de vision. XXXII Jornadas de Automatica, Sept. 2011, Sevilla, Spain.
Ciro Moreno Ramirez, M. Tomas-Rodriguez, S.A. Evangelou, Efecto de una suspension Hossack en la estabilidad de motocicletas de carreras. XXXII Jornadas de Automatica, Sept. 2011, Sevilla, Spain.
This paper presents and demonstrates a model to implement automotive systems based on their specifications in a manner that is platform independent. The goal is to have the same software used in simulation as on different types of microcontrollers in a vehicle, as well as to ease the integration of different systems. The system's components are modeled as reactive objects and use the Timber kernel to schedule their (re)actions. The demonstration is done by developing an anti-lock braking system with CarSim and Simulink. It is then evaluated using a braking maneuver on a surface with different coefficients of adhesion from side to side (split mu).
Wongun Kim, Jongseok Lee, Kyongsu Yi (Seoul National University). "Development of a Driving Control Algorithm and Performance Verification Using Real-Time Simulator for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle." SAE paper 2011-01-0262, April 2011. Show summary
This paper describes development and performance verification of a driving control algorithm for a vehicle with six driving wheels and six steering wheels (6WD/6WS) using a real-time simulator. This control algorithm was developed to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability under high speed driving conditions and includes a stability decision algorithm and wheel slip controller. The response of the 6WD/6WS vehicle with the driving controller has been evaluated via computer simulations using TruckSim and a real-time simulator. Different driving maneuvers were simulated to investigate the improved performance of the proposed optimal coordination controller.
Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models that rely on parameters such as cornering stiffness that can change with the vehicle state and time. This paper proposes a different method for ESC of oversteer by predicting the degree of instability in a vehicle. The algorithm is solely based on measurable response characteristics including lateral acceleration, yaw rate, speed, and driver steering input. These signals are conditioned and evaluated with fuzzy logic to determine the degree of instability. When the degree of instability passes a certain threshold, the appropriate control action is applied to the vehicle in the form of differential yaw braking.
David Antanaitis, Robert Nisonger, Chih-hung Yen (General Motors). "High Temperature Brake Cooling – Characterization for Brake System modeling in Race Track and High Energy Driving Conditions." SAE paper 2011-01-0566, April 2011. Show summary
At elevated brake temperatures such as those encountered under race track or fade test conditions, the closed-form solution to the lumped capacitance model for characterizing brake cooling (fitted to a standard cooling test temperature range) tends to break down and does not provide an inaccurate representation of brake rotor cooling behavior. Accurate prediction of cooling is fundamental to brake system component sizing and selection of materials at the early stages of a vehicle program. Alternative approaches to characterizing brake cooling have been examined to determine their suitability for use in measurement and simulation of brake performance.
In this paper, a limited authority real time steering controller has been developed to mitigate road shoulder-induced accidents. A Kalman Filter-based tire cornering stiffness estimation technique has been coupled with a feedback controller and driver intention module to create a safer driving solution without excessive intervention. A persistent challenge remains regarding the interpretation of driver commands and application of corrective steering actions available with on-board control systems.
Many of today's advanced simulation tools are suitable for modeling specific systems; however, they provide rather limited support for model building and management. In this paper, we describe how modern software techniques can be used to support modeling and design activities, with the objective of providing better system models more quickly by assembling these system models in a "plug-and-play" architecture. This paper describes a vehicle model composed of a detailed engine model from GT Power, a transmission from AMESim, and the vehicle dynamics from CarSim. The paper will explain the different options available for the interface and how each of these options can be implemented. It will use a simple case study to show how the detailed simulation models can be used with simpler Simulink models to address different vehicle design issues.
Melody Baglione, Burak Kanber (Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art). "Developing an Extensible and Concise Simulink Toolset for Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation." SAE paper 2011-01-0755, April 2011. Show summary
Due to the ever-increasing need for powertrain efficiency gains, system-level design is a crucial step in the hybrid vehicle development process. There exist several tools to simulate the behavior and performance of hybrid vehicles, but many of these are prohibitively expensive, too complex for some engineers (particularly students) to learn from, or unable to support custom or unusual driveline configurations.
Curran Crawford, Zuomin Dong, Jeff Waldner, Jeremy Wise (University of Victoria). "Development and Testing of an Advanced Extended Range Electric Vehicle." SAE paper 2011-01-0913, April 2011. Show summary
The focus of this paper is the design, implementation, and initial testing of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain in a 2009 GM compact SUV base vehicle by the University of Victoria's EcoCAR Team. The Team is using a condensed three-year vehicle development process modeled after Tier 1 automotive manufacturers as mandated by the EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge competition rules.
Joshua Auden, Bryan Miller, Michael Rizzo, Robert Taylor (General Motors). Hardware in the Loop Simulation – Economic Commission Europe Category C. Brake Assist System." SAE paper 2011-01-0955, April 2011. Show summary
Brake Assist System requirements have been established by the Economic Commission for Europe in R13H. Electronic Stability Control systems typically have the added function of Panic Brake Assist (PBA). PBA is designed to force the vehicle into ABS and to maintain ABS control when the driver cycles through brake pedal application and release.
Mehdi Ahmadian, Saied Taheri, Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni (Virginia Tech). "Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion." SAE paper 2011-01-0963, April 2011. Show summary
Vehicle stability is maintained by the proper interactions between the driver and the vehicle stability control system. While the driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, the vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of the driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept was inspired by the Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players in which the driver-commanded steering wheel angle and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through a differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game. The optimal preview feedback gains are obtained and the resulting controllers are evaluated by the nonlinear vehicle model of CarSim7 for the standard lane change maneuver.
Mandar Hazare, Paul Venhovens (Clemson – ICAR). "A Design Methodology to Assure Safe On-Road Handling Dynamics for Vehicles with Aftermarket Chassis Modifications." SAE paper 2011-01-0965, April 2011. Show summary
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has established the FMVSS 126 standard that requires all new vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less sold in the United States to include an electronic stability control (ESC) system as standard equipment after September 1 st , 2011 (i.e, Model Year 2012). There is growing concern among aftermarket suppliers that specialize in the development and installation of vehicle performance parts that chassis modifications may cause these ESC systems to become inoperative or otherwise create unforeseen issues with stability and safety systems. Since the aftermarket industry is in need of a process to support the development and validation of chassis modification, the authors propose the implementation of SIL and HIL simulations as a solution. Based on the results of a sensitivity analysis, guidelines for safe aftermarket modifications will be presented.
Sizhong Chen, Yuzhuang Zhao (Beijing Institute of Technology), Taehyun Shim (University of Michigan – Dearborn). "Investigation of Trailer Yaw Motion Control Using Active Front Steer and Differential Brake." SAE paper 2011-01-0985, April 2011. Show summary
This paper presents a control system development for a yaw motion control of a vehicle-trailer combination using the integrated control of active front steer (AFS) and differential brake (DB). A 21 degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle-trailer combination model that represents a large SUV and a medium one-axle trailer has been developed for this study. A model reference sliding mode controller (MRSMC) has been developed to generate the desired yaw moment and a new integrated control algorithm was proposed. The simulation results showed that integrated control of AFS and DB can restrain the trailer's oscillation effectively and shows less longitudinal speed drop and higher stable margin compared to the DB activated only case while maintaining the yaw stability.
The increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. It has been shown that the combination of the stability control systems with a predictive model-based stability index can dramatically improve the truck stability and hence road safety. In this respect the authors introduced a new Total Safety Margin (TSM) using a fuzzy logic-based stability index. That methodology utilized a smoothed step and provided acceptable results; however, continuing development has shown that a right sigmoid membership function distribution would provide more complete coverage of the fuzzy space. Compared to the more common triangular membership function which is discontinuous when the membership grade equals one, sigmoid functions facilitate obtaining smooth, continuously differentiable surfaces of a fuzzy model. This is advantageous since continuous surfaces presumably yield smooth control. This was simulated using a 3 degree-of-freedom, single track vehicle model in Matlab and validated using TruckSim 7, the simulation platform of choice. This allowed the new membership functions for Lateral Acceleration, Lateral Velocity, Yaw Rate, and Roll Angle to contribute to the updated Total Safety Margin (TSM).
Taehyun Shin (Henry W. Patton Center for Engineering Education and Practice, University of Michigan, Dearborn). "Investigation of Suspension Characteristics and Development of Effective Suspension Model for Vehicle Roll Control." Annual Progress Report, 2006. Show summary
A vehicle model that can represent realistic roll behavior is essential to predicting impending rollover as well as accurately applying actuation force to avoid rollover. The objective of this research is to develop a low-order parametric vehicle model that produces a closed roll response comparable to a multi-body-based vehicle model useful for active and passive roll control systems design.
CarSim is used as the multi-body-based model with combinations of different types of suspensions. A comprehensive study of roll behavior is assessed by performing vehicle maneuvers such as J-turns and fishhooks. The roll sensitivity analysis for the factors ignored in the roll plane model is evaluated, and its responses are compared with those of a low-order parametric vehicle model with 1-D and 2-D suspensions. A comprehensive algorithm that improves the roll response of the low-order model is then developed using measureable vehicle inputs.
Patrick Mcnaull, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger (Ohio State University), Paul Grygier (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Mohamed Kamel Salaani (Transportation Research Center). "Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model." SAE paper 2010-01-0104. April 2010. Show summary
Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Patrick Mcnaull, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger (Ohio State University), Paul Grygier (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Mohamed Kamel Salaani (Transportation Research Center). "Integration of a Torsional Stiffness Model into an Existing Heavy Truck Vehicle Dynamics Model." SAE paper 2010-01-0099. April 2010. Show summary
Torsional stiffness properties were developed for both a 53-foot box trailer and a 28-foot flatbed control trailer based on experimental measurements. In order to study the effect of torsional stiffness on the dynamics of a heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model, static maneuvers were conducted comparing different torsional stiffness values to the original rigid vehicle model. Stiffness properties were first developed for a truck tractor model. It was found that the incorporation of a torsional stiffness model had only a minor effect on the overall tractor response for steady-state maneuvers up to 0.4 g lateral acceleration.
Santhosh Chandrasekharan (Arvin Meritor), Dennis Guenther (Ohio State University), Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Scott Bradley Zagorski (Transportation Research Center), Gary Heydinger (SEA Limited), and Paul Grygier (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). "Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control." SAE paper 2010-01-0098. April 2010. Show summary
In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Vehicle steering control can provide assistance to drivers for lane keeping, automated trajectory following, or more extreme evasive maneuvers. An active torque control steering system is designed using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), and its performance was evaluated using the commercial software CARSIM. The system is developed to maintain a desired trajectory for the vehicle in performing evasive maneuvers to avoid imminent crash scenarios. In order to better understand the behavior of the system with different controllers, a simple bicycle model of the vehicle was developed, and an LQR controller was developed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller uses yaw angle, yaw rate, velocity, and position of the vehicle to generate the required steering torque to follow the desired trajectory. An observer was developed to estimate non-measured parameters. Trajectories are generated to follow a lane change before reaching the obstacle. The developed system was tested in various obstacle avoidance and lane change scenarios, and the vehicle was able to avoid obstacles.
The increasing push to accelerate the product design process and to minimize physical testing expense has promoted the development of hardware-in-the-loop testing procedures which couple well-defined virtual models with physical systems. Clear advantages include: 1) the advanced screening of candidate designs and control algorithms earlier in the product development phase, 2) lower overall testing cost to the manufacturer, 3) faster test times for design iterations, and 4) greater flexibility in the types of tests possible. This paper describes the design of an economical system that uses a parameterized, model-based vehicle simulation to control the operation of powertrain test cell hardware as part of a real-time test procedure. A commercially available vehicle simulation package allows for the modeling of a variety of chassis and powertrain combinations, along with a wide range of test procedures. This simulation is linked to an automated test stand that controls dynamometer loading and powertrain throttle, clutch, and gear positions. The selection and integration of the key test stand subsystems are detailed in this paper. This proposed method enhances conventional testing methods by providing an improved means of studying the important interactions between a vehicle chassis and its powertrain while remaining in a highly controlled laboratory environment. It is possible to effectively capture important details of powertrain performance that are otherwise lost by more common testing methods. This end result is a proof-of-concept that is potentially more versatile and realistic than traditional steady state or transient powertrain testing.
John Limroth (Michelin Americas Research Company) and Thomas Kurfess (Clemson University). "Design of an Open-Loop Steering Robot Profile for Double Lane Change Maneuver Using Simulation." SAE paper 2010-01-0096. April 2010. Show summary
This paper presents a methodology for designing a simple open-loop steering robot profile to simulate a double lane change maneuver for track testing of a heavy tractor/trailer combination vehicle. For track testing of vehicles in a lane change type of maneuver, a human driver is typically used with a desired path defined with visual cues such as traffic cones. Such tests have been shown to result in poor test repeatability due to natural variation in driver steering behavior. While a steering robot may be used to overcome this repeatability issue, such a robot typically implements open-loop maneuvers and cannot be guaranteed to cause the vehicle to accurately follow a pre-determined trajectory.
Berzah Ozan, Polat Sendur, M. Eren Uyanik, Yahya Oz, and Ilker Yilmaz (Ford Otosan AS). "A Model Validation Methodology for Evaluating Rollover Resistance Performance of a Ford Commercial Vehicle." SAE paper 2010-01-0107. April 2010. Show summary
Rollover accidents are one of the most severe kinds of vehicle crashes, with a fatality rate higher than any other crash type [ 1 ]. Therefore, the rollover performance of a vehicle needs to be evaluated and improved, if necessary, before vehicle design is finalized. The objective of this paper is to present a correlation methodology of an ADAMS vehicle model of a commercial vehicle to static, quasi-static and dynamic behavior obtained from testing an actual program representative prototype. Achieving an acceptable level of correlation to physical test will allow this ADAMS model, with appropriate updates to production representative component data, to be used as the basis for assessing the rollover resistance performance of the vehicle.
Dennis Robertson and George J. Delagrammatikas (Cooper Union). "The Suspension System of the 2009 Cooper Union FSAE Vehicle: A Comprehensive Design Review." SAE paper 2010-01-0311. April 2010. Show summary
This work details the process employed to design the 2009 Cooper Union FSAE® suspension system, spanning the overarching design philosophy, configuration selection, analysis, fabrication, and implementation, while offering recommendations to those especially new to the field. The design methodology illustrated here provides a systematic approach to suspension geometry, material selection, packaging, and construction. Though this paper serves as a starting point for FSAE® suspension designers, it provides a succinct overview for those interested in general suspension design fundamentals.
The paper presents initial development of a structure to offer lecture and laboratory experiences in vehicle engineering instruction as an option within existing engineering degree programs. Both Electrical and Mechanical Engineering majors may now complete a concentration option in Vehicle Systems that includes three new, specialized courses that required the development of new laboratory learning experiences. In addition, engineering students in various majors can select one or more of the courses without actually completing the concentration option. The paper focuses on using vehicle engineering as a platform to introduce and reinforce fundamental engineering principles and techniques in an atmosphere that embraces experiential learning in a laboratory environment. The paper will provide an overview of the vehicle engineering concentration with particular emphasis on the integration of laboratory content and initial outcomes assessment. Development of the courses and learning experiences was made possible through the support of several industrial partners.
According to the process that a new driver becomes a low skill level driver and finally a skilled driver from learning how to drive, especially in light of the understanding on the vehicle lateral dynamics that will change from linear characteristic under low speed to strong nonlinear character under high speed, a novel driver model is established. At low speed linear range, off-line optimization based on genetic tuning is introduced into the model to get the optimal control parameters which is viewed as a basic understanding of the vehicle dynamic characteristics of a low skill level driver. On basis of the previous established model, neural network adaptive mechanism is introduced to the driver model which enables the driver to adjust the control online even at high speed non-linear area, reflecting a deeper understanding of the vehicle dynamic model. At last, simulation has been taken in order to verify the correctness and accuracy of the model.
Shane Halbach, Phillip Sharer, Sylvain Pagerit, Aymeric P. Rousseau, and Charles Folkerts (Argonne National Laboratory). "Model Architecture, Methods, and Interfaces for Efficient Math-Based Design and Simulation of Automotive Control Systems." SAE paper 2010-01-0241. April 2010. Show summary
Many of today's automotive control system simulation tools are suitable for simulation, but they provide rather limited support for model building and management. Setting up a simulation model requires more than writing down state equations and running them on a computer. The role of a model library is to manage the models of physical components of the system and allow users to share and easily reuse them. In this paper, we describe how modern software techniques can be used to support modeling and design activities; the objective is to provide better system models in less time by assembling these system models in a “plug-and-play” architecture. With the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, the number of components that can populate a model has increased considerably, and more components translate into more possible drivetrain configurations. To address these needs, we explain how users can simulate a large number of drivetrain configurations. The proposed approach could be used to establish standards within the automotive modeling community.
Though the purpose of a vehicle's suspension is multi-faceted and complex, the fundamentals may be simply stated: the suspension exists to provide the occupants with a tolerable ride, while simultaneously ensuring that the tires maintain good contact with the ground. At the root of the familiar ride/handling compromise, is the problem that tuning efforts which improve either grip or handling are generally to the detriment of the other.
William E. Bombardier, John McPhee, and Chad Schmitke (University of Waterloo). "Symbolic Formulation of Multibody Dynamic Equations for Wheeled Vehicle Systems on Three-Dimensional Roads." SAE paper 2010-01-0719. April 2010. Show summary
A method to improve the computational efficiency of analyzing wheeled vehicle systems on three-dimensional (3-D) roads has been developed. This was accomplished by creating a technique to incorporate the tire on a 3-D road in a multibody dynamics model of the vehicle with an approach that formulates the governing equations using symbolic formulation. For general handling analysis performed on the vehicle, the tire forces and moments are determined using a tire model that represents the tire as a set of mathematical expressions. Since these expressions need numerical values to determine the forces and moments, a symbolic solution does not exist. Therefore, the evaluation of the tire forces and moments needs to be done during simulation. However, symbolic operations can be used when the governing equations are formulated to develop an efficient method to evaluate these forces.
Gianni Cario, Alessandro Casavola, Giuseppe Franze, Marco Lupia (Universita degli Studi della Calabria). "Predictive Time-to-Lane-Crossing Estimation for Lane Departure Warning Systems." 2009. Click here for the PDF | Show summary
This paper presents a data fusion algorithm which is able to robustly estimate the Time-to-Lane-Crossing (TLC) of a vehicle traveling along a lane on the basis of road images, collected by an on-board videocamera, and kinematic data coming from car sensors. This algorithm is instrumental to build Lane Departure Warning Systems (LDWS) with enhanced predictive capabilities which allow the generation of earlier warnings able to better prevent dangerous driving situations coming from unintentional vehicle lane crossing occurences. Comparisons with no predictive strategies are carried out and discussed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach in some critical driving scenarios simulated within the CarSim simulation framework.
Patrick James McNaull (Ohio State University). “Modeling and Validation of a Heavy Truck model with Electronic Stability Control.” Master of Science Thesis, 2009. Show summary
Validation was performed on a TruckSim vehicle dynamics model of a bobtail tractor and then for the tractor pulling a semi-trailer undergoing both steady state and dynamic steering maneuvers. For the steady state runs little difference was seen between the rigid and torsionally flexible models. A slight difference was seen for the transient tests. The results show validation of the torsional model, comparison of simulation and experimental vehicle gains, and the effect of ESC activation on a ramp steer maneuver.
Gianni Cario, Alessandro Casavola, Guiseppe Franze, Marco Lupia (Universita degli Studi della Calabria) and Gianluigi Brasili (Infomobility, it S.p.A.), “Predictive Time-to-Lane-Crossing Estimation for Lane Departure Warning Systems.” Paper No. 09-0312, 21st ESV Safety Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, 2009. Show summary
This paper presents a data fusion algorithm which is able to robustly estimate the Time-to-Lane-Crossing of a vehicle traveling along a lane on the basis of road images, collected by an on-board video camera, and kinematic data coming from car sensors. CarSim provides the simulation framework for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed approach in critical driving scenarios.
Proportional-derivative steering assistance offers potential measures by which the control stability of a vehicle can be rapidly improved. Assist algorithms in which the derivative component was varied were investigated on a moving base driving simulator controlled by a CarSim vehicle model. As a result of the experiments the authors conclude that derivative control was beneficial in lane change maneuvers, but not so with J-turns.
Nobuyoshi Mutoh and Yuki Nakano (Tokyo Metropolitan University),"Dynamic Characteristic Analyses of the Front-and Rear-Wheel Independent-Drive-Type Electric Vehicle (FRID EV) When the Drive System Failed during Running under Various Road Conditions." 5th International IEEE Vehicle Power & Propulsion Conference, Dearborn, MI, September 7-11, 2009. Show summary
This paper examines the effect of a drive motor failure on electric drive vehicles of various powertrain architectures. CarSim with the Magic Formula Tire Model is used to calculate the transient changes in yaw rate and lateral acceleration when a drive motor fails during various driving maneuvers on roads of different friction conditions. The experiments demonstrated the fail-safe driving performance of the FRID EV when driving at high speeds on curves and on slippery roads.
Tsung-Hsien Hu and Chih-Jung Yeh (Automotive Research and Testing Center, Changhwa, Taiwan), “Hardware Implementation of the Current Control Using the Internal Model Method in the Electric Power Steering Application.” 5th International IEEE Vehicle Power & Propulsion Conference, Dearborn, MI, September 7-11, 2009. Show summary
This paper introduces a development method for implementation of EPS control systems from simulation. Co-simulation tools using Matlab/Simulink and CarSim were used to predict the response of a vehicle with EPS, and the results were validated experimentally. The authors took advantage of MathWorks embedded code generator to create the C code for the DSP chip used for validation. They conclude that the co-simulation technique is helpful for verifying controller design and predicting system interaction and response before hardware implementation.
Chi-Chun Yao, Chia-Feng Lin and Kuang-Jen Chang (Automotive Research and Testing Center, Changhwa, Taiwan), “A Brake Strategy for an Automatic Parking System of Vehicle.” 5th International IEEE Vehicle Power & Propulsion Conference, Dearborn, MI, September 7-11, 2009. Show summary
This paper is concerned with development of a brake control strategy for an automatic parking system that achieves a smooth and stable speed trajectory for the parking process. The controller requires a simple vehicle longitudinal dynamics model including a powertrain, brake system and vehicle. CarSim is used to validate the longitudinal model in the controller.
Aykent Baris (Automotive and Power Train Engineering/Helmut Schmidt University, Germany), "Subjective and Objective Evaluation of an Outrigger Construction's Effect on Rollover." June 2009. Click for PDF | Show summary
This paper deals with the influence of an outrigger on roll stability of a load-dependent light commercial vehicle. CarSim is used to model the vehicle with two different outrigger designs and to control a driving simulator in which subjective tests are conducted. The results of the study were used in choosing the preferred design for the outrigger system.
Tejas Kinjawadekar, Neha Dixit, Gary J. Heydinger and Dennis A. Guenther (The Ohio State University), and Mohamed Kamel Salaani (Transportation Research Center, Inc.), "Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using CarSim." SAE paper 2009-01-0452, April 2009. Show summary
This paper discusses the development of a vehicle dynamics model and model validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition in CarSim. The tests used to measure vehicle data are described along with an account of the methodology used to determine parameters for the CarSim model. The simulated vehicle response was validated by comparison with field test data for the Slowly Increasing Steer test and the Sine with Dwell test.
Santhosh Chandrasekharan, Dennis A. Guenther and Gary J. Heydinger (The Ohio State University), and M. Kamel Salaani and Scott B. Zagorski (Transportation Research Center Inc.), "Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle." SAE paper 2009-01-0451, April 2009. Show summary
This paper describes the research work done to develop a Roll Stability Control model to be used in conjunction with a vehicle dynamics model of a 6x4 tractor and trailer. Extensive proving grounds tests with a tractor trailer were analyzed to map out responses of multiple controllers (ABS, RSC, YSC and ESC functions). A simulation model based on TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink was used as an environment to develop a controller functionally equivalent to the roll stability control on the test vehicle.
Riccardo Marino and Stefano Scalzi (University of Rome Tor Vergata), "Integrated Control of Active Steering and Electronic Differentials in Four Wheel Drive Vehicles." SAE paper 2009-01-0446, April 2009. Show summary
This paper investigates integrated control of front and rear active differentials in combination with active front steering. Simulations were carried out on a CarSim small SUV model to explore the robustness with respect to unmodelled dynamics such as pitch, roll and nonlinear combined lateral and longitudinal tire forces. The simulations showed reduced oscillations, robustness and enlarged bandwidth for the yaw rate tracking dynamics while new stable maneuvers are allowed especially in critical conditions such as split-mu braking.
Wanki Cho, Jangyeol Yoon and Kyongsu Ye (Seoul National University), and Taeyoung Jeong (Hyundai Mobis Corporation), "An Investigation into Unified Chassis Control based on Correlation with Longitudinal/Lateral Tire Force Behavior." SAE paper 2009-01-0438, April 2009. Show summary
This paper presents a Unified Chassis Control strategy to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability by integrating Electronic Stability Control and Active Front Steering. CarSim is used in combination with Matlab/Simulink to investigate the performance of the controller in comparison to a conventional Electronic Stability Control. The simulations show the two controllers to have good performance in maintaining yaw rate and side slip response, but the proposed controller had better performance in controlling longitudinal acceleration.
Robert J. Rieveley, Bruce Minaker, Marc Maurini, Iva Shallvari and Justin Laport (University of Windsor), "Development of an Advanced Driver Model and Simulation Environment for Automotive Racing." SAE paper 2009-01-0434, April 2009. Show summary
The University of Windsor Formula SAE team created a virtual simulation environment to aid in evaluation of proposed vehicle designs, suspension configuration and future driver training. Virtual prototyping and testing were achieved through co-simulation with Matlab/Simulink and CarSim. The proposed method was shown to be effective and robust in predicting driver response while controlling the vehicle within the developed simulation environment.
This paper examines the benefits of adding longitudinal control to the lateral and yaw motion control modes of conventional stability control systems. CarSim is used as the virtual test platform to evaluate controller benefits in a braking-in-a-turn maneuver under 9 different speed and load conditions. The authors report that the proposed controller maintains vehicle stability for overall driving conditions by preventing sideslip increase although sacrificing longitudinal deceleration.
Philippus Feenstra, Mark Wentink, Bruno Correia Gracio and Wim Bles (TNO Defence, Security and Safety, Human Factors, 3769 ZG Soesterberg, Netherlands) “Effects of Simulator Motion Space on Realism in the Desdemona Simulator.” Driving Simulator Conference 2009 Europe, Monoco – 4 – 6 February 2009. Show summary
The goal of the study was to assess the effect of an increasing motion space on the fidelity of driving simulation in the Desdemona research simulator. Subjects drove a car equivalent to a Volkswagen Passat through a slalom course in the Desdemona Driving Simulator. Vehicle dynamics were calculated by CarSim. Motion amplitude was varied from no motion to full motion on a 1:1 scale. The authors conclude that the experience is more realistic when motion cues are available in the range of 0.4 to 1, and participants indicated that motion and forces helped the conduct the task better.
Efstathios Velenis (Brunel University), Panagiotis Tsiotras (Georgia Institute of Technology), Jianbo Lu (Ford Motor Company), "Trail-Braking Driver Input Parameterization for General Corner Geometry." SAE paper 2008-01-2986, December 2, 2008. Show summary
CarSim is used to integrate and validate driver controls that model high speed cornering techniques used by rally drivers.
Innovative automotive engineering course teaches vehicle dynamics through virtual racing competition.
Kunsoo Huh (Hanyang University), Junyeon Hwang (Hanyang University), Hyuck-min Na (Mando Corporation), Ho Gi Jung (Mando Corporation), Hyung-Jin Kang (Mando Corporation), Pal-Joo Yoon (Mando Corporation), "Development of a Model Based Predictive Controller for Lane Keeping Assistance." SAE paper 2008-01-1454, April 17, 2008.
Byung-Lyul Choi (Framax Inc.), Dong-Hoon Choi (Hanyang University), Hyeongcheol Lee, Hyunsup Kim (Hanyang University), "Integrated Chassis Design Procedure by using PIDO Technology." SAE paper 2008-01-0884, April 17, 2008. Show summary
CarSim is used in an automated process to change kinematic information and calibrate vehicle controllers.
Johan Eriksson (Lulea University of Technology), Mikael Nybacka (Lulea University of Technology), Tobias Larsson (Lulea University of Technology), Per Lindgren (Lulea University of Technology), "Using Timber in a Multi-Body Design Environment to Develop Reliable Embedded Software." SAE paper 2008-01-0742 , April 15, 2008. Show summary
CarSim is used in a paradigm system with other software packages to reduce the time it takes to develop embedded electronic systems while maintaining quality.
Hiromichi Nozaki (Kinki University), Masahito Kizu (Kinki University), "Consideration of Suspension Mechanism with High Cornering Performance for a Formula Car." SAE paper 2008-01-0607, April 16, 2008. Show summary
The effect of an active camber control system was studied using CarSim as the vehicle model for the entire vehicle movement.
Vinod Cherian (The MathWorks), Rohit Shenoy (The MathWorks), Alec Stothert (The MathWorks), Justin S. Shriver (The MathWorks), Jason Ghidella (The MathWorks), Thomas Gillepsie (Mechanical Simulation Corporation), "Model-Based Design of a SUV Anti-Rollover Control System." SAE paper 2008-01-0579, April 16, 2008. Show summary
CarSim was used to automatically optimize vehicle stability control systems. Engineers can swap out different vehicle configurations in the CarSim interface using a single Simulink model of the controller.
CarSim was used to perform the Sine with Dwell simulation to determine how changes in vehicle properties affect the test results. Simulation results correlated well with proving ground testing.
Jinghong Yu (Honda R&D Americas Inc.), Michael Johnson (Honda R&D Americas Inc.), "Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-Off Limit Performance." SAE paper 2008-01-0587 , April 16, 2008. Show summary
The vehicle modeled with CarSim and a steering system model that are linked together. The simulation model correlated well with actual vehicle tests. It was used to predict steering effort torque during power steering failure.
Bo-Chiuan Chen (National Taipei University of Technology), Shiuh-Jer Huang (National Taipei University of Technology), Wei-Feng Hsu (National Taipei University of Technology), "Return Control of Electric Power Steering System using Sliding Mode Approach." SAE paper 2008-01-0499 , April 17, 2008. Show summary
CarSim is used as the virtual car in Matlab/Simulink to test a sliding mode electric power steering control.
Minchae Lee (Hanyang University), Myoungho Sunwoo , Jeamyoung Youn (Hanyang University), Jooyoung Ma (Hanyang University), Jaehyun Han (Hanyang University), "Validation of a Seamless Development Process for Real-time ECUs using OSEK-OS based SILS/RCP." SAE paper 2008-01-0803 , April 16, 2008. Show summary
The new algorithm was simulated with CarSim for validation of a process for overcoming the problem of temporal behaviors caused by computation time, task scheduling, network delays, etc.
Nathan Nantais (University of Windsor), Bruce P. Minaker (University of Windsor), "Active Four Wheel Brake Proportioning for Improved Performance and Safety." SAE paper 2008-01-1224, April 17, 2008. Show summary
The simulation of an open-loop load transfer based, active brake pressure distribution system was carried out with CarSim, with load prediction calculated by MATLAB Simulink. It was found to accurately predict the normal load at each tire on a vehicle using only nominal vehicle parameters.
Kunsoo Huh (Hanyang University), Pal-Joo Yoon (Hanyang University), Daegun Hong (Mando Corporation), Kwangjin Han (Mando Corporation), Joogon Kim (Mando Corporation), Hyung-Jin Kang (Mando Corporation), "A Model-Based Fault Diagnosis System for Electro-Hydraulic Brake." SAE paper 2008-01-1225", April 17, 2008. Show summary
CarSim is used as the vehicle model in a model-based fault diagnosis system for electro-hydraulic braking system.
Santhosh Chandrasekharan (The Ohio State University), “Development of a Tractor-Semitrailer Roll Stability Control Model.” Master of Science Thesis, 2007. Show summary
The object of this research was to develop an ESC system in software so that risky maneuvers could be studied in simulation and the responses of the truck studied. Tests were performed on a tractor-semitrailer outfitted with an ESC to understand the behavior of an ESC System from which to create models of ESC and Roll Stability Control systems. TruckSim was used as the vehicle model. Matlab Simulink was used for brake system and controller modeling. The simulation showed that the ESC system was capable of preventing the truck form rolling over when subjected to severe maneuvers at high speed.
Matthew Shurtz, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, (Ohio State University); Scott B. Zagorski, (Transportation Research Center Inc.), "Refinements of a Heavy Truck ABS Model." SAE paper 2007-01-0839, April 2007
Craig Stephen Ross (General Motors Corporation), Clinton Carey (General Motors Corporation), Todd C. Schanz (General Motors Corporation), Edmund F. Gaffney (General Motors Corporation), Michael J. Catalano (Dana Corporation), "Development of an Electronically-Controlled, Limited Slip Differential (eLSD) for FWD Applications." SAE paper 2007-01-0925, April 2007
Ying Chen (General Motors Corporation), Brandon Jones (General Motors Corporation), "Software Testing Strategies for Model-Based Chassis Control Systems." SAE paper 2007-01-0505, April 2007
Soo Bo Park (Hyundai Motor Co.), Sung Wook Hwang (Hyundai Motor Co.), Young Ho Oh (Hyundai Motor Co.), Un Koo Lee (Hyundai Motor Co.), "Development of the Independent-Type Steer by Wire System." SAE paper 2007-01-1148, April 2007
Naoto Ohkubo (Honda R&D Co., Ltd.), Takehiro Horiuchi (Honda R&D Co., Ltd.), Osamu Yamamoto (Honda R&D Co., Ltd.), Hiromi Inagaki (Honda R&D Co., Ltd.), "Brake Torque Sensing for Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Control Systems." SAE paper 2007-01-0867, April 2007
Ming Une Jen (Industrial Technology Research Institute) , Ming-Hung Lu (Industrial Technology Research Institute), "Integration of Kinematics and Compliance Measurement with Vehicle Dynamics Validation for a Shared Platform." SAE paper 2007-01-0832, April 2007.
Mahesh Madurai Kumar (University of Michigan - Ann Arbor), Taehyun Shim (University of Michigan - Dearborn), Jahan Asgari (Ford Motor Co.), "Development of a Vehicle Animation Tool Using MATLAB Virtual Reality Toolbox." SAE paper 2007-01-0947, April 2007
Mohammad Kamal (Altair Engineering Inc.), Taehyun Shim (University of Michigan - Dearborn), "Development of Active Suspension Control for Combined Handling and Rollover Propensity Enhancement." SAE paper 2007-01-0826, April 2007
Ruediger Heim (Fraunhofer Institute LBF), Ivo Krause (Fraunhofer Institute LBF), Steffen Weingaertner (Fraunhofer Institute LBF), "Runflat-Technology and its Impact on Design and Durability of Wheels." SAE paper 2007-01-1532, April 2007
Yuping He (University of Ontario), John McPhee (University of Waterloo), "A Review of Automated Design Synthesis Approaches for Virtual Development of Ground Vehicle Suspensions." SAE paper 2007-01-0856 , April 2007
Kunsoo Huh (Hanyang University), Jongchul Jung (Hanyang University), Daegun Hong (Hanyang University), Sunghyun Lim (LG Electronics), Sangoh Han (Hanyang University), Kwangjin Han (Hanyang University), Hee Young Jo (Hyundai Motor Co.), Jae Min Yun (Hyundai Motor Co.), "Vehicle Mass Estimator Design for Adaptive Roll Stability Control." SAE paper 2007-01-0820, April 2007
C. Rengaraj, A.Adgar, C.S.Cox, D.A.Crolla, "Cosimulation of parameter based vehicle dynamics and an ABS control system," International Conference on Systems Engineering(ICSE2006) at University of Coventry, Coventry, United Kingdom, Sep 2006. Click here for the PDF.
Joseph P. Ryan, Michael W. Neal, James W. Mero, Frank J. Taverna, (General Motors Corporation), "Design of the Milford Road Course.", SAE paper 2005-01-0385.April 2005, Presented at the 2005 SAE World Congress and Exhibition. Show summary
CarSim is used to design the new handling road at the GM Milford Proving Grounds.
Jiang, F., "An Application of Nonlinear PID Control to a Class of Truck ABS Problems," Ford Motor Company, Product Development Center and The Applied Control Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio. Click here for the PDF | Show summary
Various ABS control strategies are tested using TruckSim .
Engineers combine CarSim, Simulink, and AMESim to simulated advanced controllers, including the logic and hydraulics.
Sundaram, P., D'Ambrosio, J., et al., "Development of a Simulation Model for System Safety Analysis", Mathworks International Automotive Conference 2005, Delphi Corporation. Click here for the PDF.
Littlejohn, D., Fornari, T., Kuo, G., et al., "Performance, Robustness, and Durability of an Automatic Brake System for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control," 2004 SAE World Congress, SAE Paper 2004-01-0255, Delphi Corp and Michigan State University, Detroit, Michigan. Click here for the PDF.
Michael Daniel Dorohoff, Jr. – Ohio State University, “A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries during Severe Driving Maneuvers.” Master of Science Thesis, 2003. Show summary
The object of the research was to study vehicle response asymmetries during severe driving maneuvers as had been observed in field testing. Side-to-side differences in suspension stiffness was suspected as a source. CarSim was used to simulate these conditions and confirm the trend that softer side suspensions lead to earlier wheel liftoff. However the effect of lateral CG offset was found to dominate asymmetric vehicle response.
Ashley Liston Dunn – Ohio State University. “Jackknife Stability of Articulated Traqctor Semitrailer Vehicles with High-output Brakes and Jackknife Detection on Low Coefficient Surfaces.” Doctoral Thesis, 2003. Show summary
This thesis presents a detailed study of the effects on jackknife stability from using high torque brakes on highway tractors. A sophisticated nonlinear model for a complete pneumatic braking system was coupled with the TruckSim commercial vehicle simulation package to investigate stability with and without ABS. The author concludes that there was no detrimental influence on jackknife stability from higher-torque brakes.
Scott Bradley Zagorski – Ohio State University. “Compatibility of ABS Disc/drum Brakes on Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers and Their Effects on Jackknife Stability.” Master of Science Thesis, 2003. Show summary
This study investigated the jackknife stability of a tractor with doubles trailer combinations in brake-in-turn maneuvers with varying loads and surface conditions, and brake configurations. TruckSim was used to model the vehicle dynamics. Stability performance was examined over a multitude of conditions covering various vehicle configurations, disc and drum brakes, and ABS on or off at different axles locations.
Chen, C. and Peng, H., "Rollover prevention for Sports Utility Vehicles With Human-in-the-Loop Evaluations," 5th Int'l Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, August 2000, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Click here for the PDF | Show summary
Rollover is studied using TruckSim for regular simulation and also a driving simulator.
Kawauchi, Hl, Maegawa, A., et al., "Development of Quantitative Evaluation Method of Vehicle Stability & Controllability", SEI Technical Review - Number 59 - January 2005 - 7 Show summary
Electronic controls are evaluated using Lissajous figures, which are also used to validate CarSim as a realistic simulation.
Watanabe, Y. and Sharp, R. S., "The Application of Neural Network Learning Control to the Design of a Low-Energy Active Suspension System." 4th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC '98, JSAE, 1998, Nagoya, Japan.