VehicleSim Technical Reference
Here is a limited bibliography of technical papers
describing some of the underlying VehicleSim technology of CarSim, TruckSim, and BikeSim.
Gillespie, T.D. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. 1992, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA. Show summary
This best-selling textbook by a Mechanical Simulation co-founder is a great reference for vehicle dynamicst. It explains he mechanics and physics of the systems that are simulated in CarSim and TruckSim.
This paper describes the 3D ground and road model in BikeSim, CarSim, and TruckSim.
The road model is intended to work with data from many sources, including GPS measurements, design data, road roughness profile measurements, 3D laser-scanned terrain topology, and specific scenarios created by engineers. A road axis system is defined for describing vehicle motions relative to an inclined road surface for aerodynamics and applications where engineers are concerned with motions of the vehicle relative to the ground surface.
Watanabe, Y. and Sayers, M. W., "The Effect of Nonlinear Suspension Kinematics on the Simulated Pitching and Rolling Dynamics Behavior of Cars." 18th International Symposium Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, IAVSD '03, JSME and JSAE, 2003, Atsugi, Japan. Show summary
This describes some modeling features introduced in CarSim 6.
Y. Watanabe, M.W. Sayers , "Extending Vehicle Dynamics Software for Analysis, Design, Control, and Real-Time Testing," presented at the The 6th AVEC Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan, Sep 9-13, 2002. Show summary
An overview of CarSim and CarSim RT.
R. S. Sharp," Influences of suspension kinematics on pitching dynamics of cars in longitudinal maneuvering," Vehicle System Dynamics supplement to Vol. 33, Swets and Zeitlinger (Lisse), 2000, 23-36.
Sayers, M.W., "Vehicle Models for RTS Applications." Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 4-5, Nov. 1999, pp. 421-438. Show summary
This paper presents the modeling assumptions in CarSim RT.
Sayers, M.W. and S. M. Riley, "Modeling Assumptions for Realistic Multibody Simulations of the Yaw and Roll Behavior of Heavy Trucks." In SAE International Congress and Exposition. Detroit, MI: February 26-29, 1996. SAE Paper No. 960173. Show summary
This paper describes the fundamental modeling assumptions in early versions of TruckSim, with some validation results.
Sayers, M.W. and Han, D.S., “A Generic Multibody Vehicle Model for Simulating Handling and Braking.” Presented at the 14th IAVSD Symposium, Ann Arbor, 1995, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 25 supplement, 1996, pp. 599-613. Show summary
This paper describes the fundamental modeling assumptions in early versions of CarSim, with some validation results.
Watanabe, Y. and Sharp, R. S., "Mechanical and Control Design of a Variable Geometry Active Suspension System." Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 32, 2-3, August 1999. Show summary
Early collaboration between Dr. Yukio Watanabe and Prof. Robin Sharp.
Watanabe, Y. and Sharp, R. S., "The Application of Neural Network Learning Control to the Design of a Low-Energy Active Suspension System." 4th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC '98, JSAE, 1998, Nagoya, Japan.
Simulation of Multibody Dynamics
R. S. Sharp, "Multibody dynamics applications in vehicle engineering", invited keynote lecture for Multibody Dynamics: New Techniques and Applications," I. Mech. E. Conference Transactions 1998-13, Professional Engineering Publishers, London, 215-228. Show summary
Professor Sharp presents much of the technology used by Mechanical Simulation to create vehicle simulation tools in CarSim, TruckSim, and BikeSim. The symbololic multibody program VS Lisp was then called AUTOSIM.
Sayers, M.W., "Symbolic Vector/Dyadic Multibody Formalism for Tree-Topology Systems." Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1991, 1240-1250. (aiaa_formalism.pdf) | Show summary
This paper presents the method used to derive equations of motion for multibody systems such as the vehicle models in CarSim, TruckSim, and BikeSim. (The AutoSim multibody symbolic code generator is now called VehicleSim Lisp.) The PhD dissertation provide more detail, including the treatment of nonholonomic constraints and closed kinematical loops, and results of benchmark multibody examples.
This paper presented methods used in VS Lisp (then called AutoSim) to generate symbolic equations for multibody systems. The computer algebra includes 3D vectors, dyadics, and extensive optimizations in generating code that avoids unnecessary calculations.
This dissertation describes the original design of the symbolic multibody program AutoSim (now called VehicleSim Lisp). It describes the internal representation of multibody parts such as points, bodies, unit-vector, arbitrary 3D vectors, dyadics, sequences of equations, and other symbolic objects. It includes the multibody formalism used to generate equations of motion for multibody system, including the treatment of nonholonomic constraints and closed kinematical loops. The methods are demonstrated with benchmark multibody examples.
Sayers, M.W. and C.W. Mousseau, "Real-time Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Obtained with a Symbolic Multibody Program." Transportation Systems 1990, AMD-Vol 108, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1990. pp. 51-58 Show summary
This paper compares the performance of CarSim-type car models with other multibody tools.
R. S. Sharp, "Use of the symbolic multibody modelling code AUTOSIM for vehicle dynamics", AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOTECH "97, Mech. Eng. Publ., Bury St Edmunds, 1997-7, 189-197. Show summary
This paper (and the next) report on activities by Robin Sharp, using Mechanical Simulation's AutoSim code generator to study vehicle dynamics. The methods are similar to those used at Mechanical Simulation to create and maintain our vehicle models. (AutoSim is now called VS Lisp.)
R. S. Sharp, "Vehicle dynamics modelling with the aid of a symbolic multibody code", Proc. AVEC '96, RWTH Aachen, Vol. 2, June 1996, 971-984.